This chapter was excerpted from the book:

Astrobiology, the Origin of Life,
and the Death of Darwinism


Visitations, Sightings, UFOs

by Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D.

According to astrobiological contamination infection theory, the Universe is buzzing with life, and some of these life forms, these "seeds of life," have been repeatedly tossed into the abyss following impact shearings and cosmic collisions. As the first evidence of Earthly life appeared almost immediately following a 700 million year pummeling by all manner of debris, it thus appears that at least a few of these seeds--and their DNA-- fell to Earth, as well as other planets. As DNA can only be produced by DNA, then it would appear that these initial DNA-life forms were exobiological in origin.

According to astrobiological contamination infection theory, not all immigrants survived whereas others may have become or remained dormant. Those who crashed to Earth or other planets but under life neutralizing environmental and climatic conditions, likely perished, leaving no trace of their brief earthly sojourn, or their DNA. Indeed, it is possible that most astrobiological organisms might find the Earth's environment and atmosphere (then and now) to be exceedingly poisonous and deadly. However, some of those who fell to earth may well have remained dormant until the environment was sufficiently genetically altered so as to sustain them.

In this regard, the members of the five Kingdoms of Life who have taken root on Earth -including woman and man- could be considered a small representative sample, and a partial, limited example of life and its many manifold possibilities, as it exists, takes form, "evolves," and struggles for existence elsewhere in the Universe (Feinberg & Shapiro, 1980; Joseph, 1997).

However, as to those who survived these great journeys, they not only flourished but may have shared genetic information and then acted in concert to genetically engineer the environment. That is, the DNA of these organisms acted on the environment, which acts on gene selection, so as to promote DNA dispersal and activation.

Specifically, collectively these creatures, including all present day species, constitute a supra-DNA organism which promotes DNA expression and dispersal by acting on the environment which acts on gene selection thus releasing hidden stores of genetic information, including those codes for the recreation of creatures that long ago lived on other planets. Over the ensuing 3 billion years there soon emerged all manner of species, the vast majority of which had probably been programmed into the DNA of those creatures who long ago lived on other planets.

Given the nonrandom stepwise nature of evolution, and the fact that the emergence of each subsequent species has unfolded in accordance with the predictable ticking of a molecular genetic-clock, it can also be predicted that innumerable species were programmed to appear, albeit in conjunction with the genetically engineered environment.

Again, as DNA is the only source for DNA and as the first DNA-based organism to appear on this planet must have arrived from another planet, then its stands to reason that the genetic instructions for creating all manner of organs, systems, and species, including creatures resembling modern woman and man, were inherited from exobiological organisms who possessed a visual, auditory, skeletal, cardiovascular, and nervous system; creatures who long ago lived on other planets. Similarly, since humans inherited their DNA from those who were among the first to take root on this planet, it can be concluded that human DNA traces it ancestry interminably into the long ago.


Evolutionary metamorphosis is a principle of life not only on Earth, but on every suitable planet that is susceptible to genetic engineering. That does not mean, however, that creatures identical to humans have or will necessarily "evolve" on every suitable, genetically engineered world. Again, the five Kingdoms of Life which have taken root on Earth provide only a partial sample of life and its many manifold possibilities, as it may exist, take form, evolve, and struggle for existence elsewhere in the cosmos. As is apparent from an examination of the genomes of most species, the vast majority of their DNA is silent, the information they contain, unknown. This silent DNA may well have been expressed on other planets.

It is conceivable that various corners of the cosmos may be populated by non-cellular or non-DNA derived entities, some of which may also be highly evolved yet in ways that defy human (DNA-based) comprehension. This may be particularly true of life in distant galaxies; that is, those whose chemistry is radically different from our own.

Nevertheless, because the five kingdoms of Earthly life all contain DNA and consist of cellular components, we can make certain predictions about the characteristics of at least some extraterrestrial creatures.

We can predict that some alien life forms, like Earth based creatures, consist of living cells, which contain DNA. These cells would probably require water and have acquired electrical-chemical, generative powers for active transport of food, waste, and the transmission and reception of important messages. Some exobiological organisms would have evolved five or more senses and a brain that could process that information.

As on Earth, it is likely that some extraterrestrials possess the same "universal" genetic code and similar genetic memories, instructions, or potential within their DNA. Provided a variable Earth-like environment that was susceptible to genetic engineering, we could predict that on certain worlds, over time, a somewhat similar step wise sequence of increasing intelligence, complexity and diversity would take place involving numerous extinctions and recoveries.

Specifically, bacteria and simple microbes, plants and insects, and animals reminiscent of reptiles, repto-mammals, therapsids, mammals, primates, and human-like creatures might likely blossom and unfold; which does not mean to say they would look like their Earthly counterparts.

We can also predict that those aliens who are related to the Animal Kingdom of Life would be intelligent, and have brains comprised of nerve cells and DNA. With the exception of the sponge, all members of the Animal Kingdom of Life, be they vertebrate or invertebrate have specialized nerve cells and neurons that possess greatly enhanced information processing and intellectual capabilities, as compared to other cells.

Earth based vertebrate and invertebrate brain organization is basically identical at the neuronal level, e.g. possessing cell bodies, dendrites, axons, chemical neurotransmitters and peptides. Hence, those aliens belonging to the Animal Kingdom of Life would also have evolved brains which may differ from their counterparts on Earth depending on the species, and the age, size and climate of the planet in question.

Animal life on some planets would likely undergo the same definite sequence in cerebral structural and hierarchical organization and expansion, as is apparent in the progression from fish to primate brain; a process referred to as encephalization. This would include alien brains organized in a fish-like, reptilian, mammalian, or in a primate and thus, human-like fashion. And, in regard to human-like species, they would have likely evolved similar praxic, creative, technological and linguistic capabilities.

Hence, some aliens might posses a midbrain, and brainstem, which would control attention, movement, and sound and visual perception. Their brain would likely include an olfactory forebrain and limbic system which would mediate all aspects of sex, socialization, love, aggression, memory and emotion, including hunger and thirst. And among the advanced species, they would have evolved a six or seven layered neocortex that would overlay and shroud the older portions of the brain and subserve language and thought and thus the rational mind.

As humans have a propensity for exploration, curiosity and the seeking of knowledge, it could be assumed that those aliens who have reached a similar or advanced level of neurological development would, like Earthlings, share similar social- emotional, and intellectual inclinations, including curiosity, jealously, and pride. Regardless of differences in physical appearance, some advanced alien species -at least those who have evolved from mammal-like creatures- would likely behave, feel, and think in a manner grossly similar to human earthlings.

For example, like humans, it might be expected that some aliens would thirst for knowledge, or revel in games, sports, competition, conquest, exploitative acquisition, and the glory of rape and slaughter of war. Like modern humans, some aliens would be conquering, enslaving, predatory killers, with little or no compassion for the vanquished. Some aliens might be expected to behave in an irrational and destructive manner, whereas yet others would be seekers of knowledge, wisdom, and spiritual growth.

However, on some worlds, highly intelligent species, with an intellect comparable or far superior to humans, may have "evolved" from mammals other than primates, such as wolves and canines, or even insects or plants. Indeed, there may be "dog stars" where upright Canis sapiens sapiens stare into space wondering if they are alone; and planets blooming and buzzing with highly evolved intelligent vegetable and insect life (Joseph, 1997).

On some ancient worlds, mammals may never have evolved, such that the metamorphosis of increasingly intelligent life arose from a completely different branch of the forest of life. The direct line leading to hominids may have been killed off due, perhaps, to that planet's unique environment, climate, atmosphere, gravity, and distance from the sun, and/or because the planet passed through a viral cloud of contagion or was struck by massive debris which chopped off the branch that would lead to primates just before that branch began to bloom.

It is possible that those galaxies which are the most distant from our own, may harbor life forms dramatically different from our own. However, we can also predict that intelligent human-like beings may well be found on numerous planets and galaxies, particularly those worlds within our own Milky Way Galaxy which likely consists of a hundred billion suns and solar planets. That is, it might be expected that those solar systems which are closest to our own (vs those much further away) were likely contaminated and infected with genetic seeds similar to those, which on Earth, gave rise to humans and other members of the Animal Kingdom of Life.

Again, given that metamorphosis on this planet has been characterized by an obvious step-wise, linear process of increasing intelligence, complexity and brain power, it could therefore be predicted that a similar process has occurred on those life bearing worlds similar to our own. However, as a progressive increase in intelligence and brain size and complexity is characteristic of life on this planet, and as up to 95% of the human genome is silent and has yet to be expressed (that is, on Earth), it can be predicted that aliens evolving in the older regions of the cosmos would probably have continued to evolve and undergo metamorphosis.

These ancient ones who "evolved" billions of years before the Earth was formed may have long ago acquired new brain tissues and new layers of neocortex, and might be capable of processing sensory information which human brains may fail to even perceive much less comprehend.


For example, whereas humans have 7 layers of neocortex, those who live in the older regions of the cosmos may have developed 8 or 10, or 12 layers which may be thicker and contain more neurons than their Earthly counterparts. And they may have experienced expansions in those areas of the brain, such as the frontal lobes, which are associated with foresight, judgment, planning skills, and the ability to form long term goals and anticipate multiple long term consequence. Indeed, the frontal lobes serve as the senior executive of the brain, and enable humans to consider multiple possibilities simultaneously while keeping yet other possibilities and their consequences "in mind."


Continued expansion in the frontal lobe, therefore, may enable the individual to not only consider multiple possibilities, but to plan for every possible eventuality to the "nth degree." Coupled with expansion of yet other brain tissues, these individuals would be correspondingly much more intelligent and creative than any Earthling. If that were the case, they may be able to perceive, deduce, discover, analyze, and assimilate juxtapositions and interrelationships that would be completely beyond human conception and comprehension.

Consider, the Cro-Magnon people of the Upper Paleolithic had a brain that was 30% larger than modern humans (Joseph, 2000a). And they sported an enlarged frontal lobe. Moreover, of the 3% of human DNA that is coded and expressed, about 50% of that is devoted to the human brain. This suggests that maybe as much as 30-40% of non-coding human DNA may be related to the functioning of the brain; silent DNA that could be activated in the future, and a small portion of which may have been activated during the Upper Paleolithic.


Nevertheless, some advanced aliens who've evolved additional layers of neocortex and expansions of the lobes of the brain, might still be subject to the same irrational forces that give rise to excitement, anger, envy, status seeking, violence, sexuality, and the desire to make love or war. Yet others may well have learned to manipulate their own genetic potential in order to eliminate destructive traits.

In addition, like social insects, on some ancient alien worlds the male line may have become more subservient to the less destructive and more orderly, docile and socially cooperative female of the species. Consider, for example, that the tiny Y (male) sex chromosome is gene poor whereas the X (female) chromosome is gene rich. Might the male gene depletion continue into the future? Would such worlds be less war-like but more nurturing and compassionate, and ruled by fascist matriarchs, and those more interested in high fashion, romance, darling little shoes, the sharing of feelings, cooperation, community, and social consensus rather than conquest and war?


[INSERT FIGURE 195 ABOUT HERE/1.51 eye people only}

Given our own curiosity as to life elsewhere in the cosmos, it is certainly conceivable that some of those who have evolved in the more ancient corners of the cosmos might be interested in and quite capable of not just observing, but visiting the Earth. If that is the case, it might be asked, then why don't they announce themselves and open up lines of communication?

Perhaps, like good anthropologists they merely observe and gather information, and for the most part leave Earthlings to behave largely unmolested. Maybe it is even against the law. Or, perhaps what has taken place on this planet is so common and mundane, that there is little or no motivation to visit a world that is just like a trillion other planets swarming with human-like creatures.

Or, perhaps the humans that evolved on other worlds self-destructed in the nuclear fires of their own making. That is, life appears, undergoes metamorphosis, humans emerge only to destroy human-life, the end.

Or, again, as noted above, like good anthropologists, perhaps they do walk among us, but they are so technologically advanced, or so much like us, that they are in all respects invisible or simply indistinguishable and prefer merely to study and observe.

On the other hand, although the possibility is dismissed by many scientists, these technologically advanced aliens may periodically visit our world, perhaps in "invisible" space craft controlled by robots, or maybe as part of a cosmic tour group of alien tourists who visit far away worlds.

Or maybe we are studied from afar only for the purposes of scientific investigation and only those who dare defy the ruling pantheons actually make periodic contact with certain humans who are then ridiculed for reporting their encounters. Indeed, beginning with the Sumerians, there have been repeated reports and eye witness accounts the world over of alien space craft and of "gods" --"gods" who are no different from humans with the exception that they are incredibly technologically advanced.


Biblical and ancient references to glowing beings, angels, and gods who arrive from the heavens in whirlwinds or wheels of fire, are not uncommon. Depictions of flying craft and "space ships" also grace the wall of many an ancient tomb and manuscript, including the "picture writings" of the Sumerians, Babylonians, Mayas and Aztec Indians. Mayan Kings and Babylonian Emperors rode winged orbs and fire belching flying ships--in imitation of their "gods." Ancient Chinese texts refer to a far off "land of the flying carts" where strange beings rode winged chariots with gilded wheels.


Ancient sightings also refer to winged battles in the sky. Sanskrit texts (the Drona Parva), describe aerial dogfights between "gods" piloting death spewing, missile firing flying machines called vimanas. In some cases, the vimanas sought to destroy one another, "discharging... blazing missiles possessed of the radiance of smokeless fire."

As stated in the Puranas, the most ancient of the ancient Vedic texts, and as detailed by ancient Sumerian and Babylonian scribes, as well as the ancient Greeks and Romans, over the ages various incarnations of the gods have traveled to Earth. Some of these "gods" then commenced to engage in war; that is, with each other, and more rarely, with the humans of the Earth below.

According to the Gita and the Puranas, Lord Krishna and Lord Rama were just a few of these battling gods. However, from the description of the battle, it appears (if were are to believe these reports) that Krishna used atomic weapons to destroy the armies of those gods who opposed him; gods who also threatened the Earth and who were associated with Venus, the Morning Star.

In other instances it was the ancient Earthlings below whom the aliens harassed. For example, in 328 BC, Alexander the Great complained that his armies were repeatedly harassed by a pair of flying ships. In the 9th Century, the Archbishop of Lyons wrote to the Pope, describing "aerial sailors" who flew ships that sailed through the clouds, plaguing and terrifying the people. In April of 1561, huge spheres and gleaming discs appeared in the sky over Nuremberg Germany, and engaged in an aerial ballet, amazing the people below, and arousing the papal authorities to denounce the discs as the work of the devil.


Sometimes these sky beings behaved cruelly with the Earthlings. The Indians of old California reported that on numerous occasions luminous beings appeared from the sky. These sky gods would paralyze the people with the aid of a tube that sprayed strange colored light. Once the people were paralyzed, the luminous gods began to stick and probe them with "cactus needles."


But sometimes their actions were benevolent. The Mayas, Olmecs, Indo-Aryans, Egyptians, Babylonians, and Sumerians told of sky gods who repeatedly visited the Earth, sometimes providing Earthlings with advanced knowledge, wisdom, and technological wizardry. The Olmecs dedicated 8 foot statues to these beings; statues that depicted bubble helmeted men from the stars who wielded torches that could melt rock. Mayan kings were depicted ascending the heavens in fire belching space craft.


According to the Puranas, there were numerous ages of mankind before the present era and the rebirth of civilization. However, during one of these ages (avatars) of man (somewhere between 20,000 to 50,000 years ago), men from the stars arrived on Earth bringing with them cosmic wisdom and weapons of mass destruction. The Sumerians, Egyptians, Babylonians, Chinese, and Mayas, also refer to these ages of men, when magnificent beings descended from the sky, bringing with them the kingship from heaven and the knowledge of the gods.

As noted, sometimes these gods fought amongst themselves. However, these "gods" were not beyond using their technological wizardry to destroy Earthlings and their cities; that is, if these ancient text are to be believed. For example, in the Gita and as detailed in an ancient Hindu text referred to as the Mahabharata, the Lord Krishna deployed a mystical weapon, the pasupata, which he unleashed during the battle of Kurukhestra -a weapon which immediately created a huge fireball and a terrible wind which instantly vaporized thousands of enemy soldiers. Those who survived soon developed bleeding sores. They lost their hair and then their nails, after which they slowly died from constant vomiting, bleeding, and internal hemorrhages.

According to the Mahabharata, this weapon was unleashed in an area that today is called Rajastan, an immense desert where nothing lives or grows.

According to the Bible (Genesis, chapters 18), one day several men appeared outside Abraham's tent. "And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him..." The leader of these men ("god") explained to Abraham that he had received some very upsetting reports about the misbehavior of the peoples of Sodom and Gomorrah, and that he and his men (the angels) were going to see firsthand if it was true.

Later, after finishing a fine meal, "the three men rose up and looked toward Sodom: and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way. And the Lord said to his companions, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do? And the Lord said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great and because their sin is very grievous I will go down and see what they have done." He then explains that if these reports turn out to be true, then the people and their cities would have to be destroyed "And the men turned their faces from thence and went toward Sodom."

Once they arrived in Sodom it was even worse than the "god" and his "angels" had anticipated. The anal sex crazed mobs surrounded them and attempted to sodomize the angels of the Lord God (Genesis, 19). However, these angels had a weapon. "And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness."

The angels then warned Abraham's nephew Lot (and his family) to leave because the city will soon be destroyed. These "angels" then transported the Lot family to just outside the city.

No sooner had Lot and his family made their escape than a huge red fireball erupted that was brighter than the sun... "Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from out of heaven. And he overthrew the cities, and all the plain, and all that inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground... and lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace...

"....and Lot went out and dwelt in the mountain... and he dwelt in a cave, for he feared to dwell in Zoar" (the country where the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were located). However, Lot's wife did not obey the instructions of the "god" and his angels. She looked (or went) back, and then dried up and turned into pillar of salt.

The massive destruction of armies and cities by sky gods and their weapons are described repeatedly throughout history, and even as recently as 1,000 AD. In that year, in Cyprus, strange individuals, referred to as demons, left behind a metallic sphere which emitted a strange light. According to the survivors, this strange sphere subsequently exploded and destroyed the city in a blinding flash of nightmarish thunder, fire and smoke.

However, there are many more reports of benign visitors who are reluctant to harm humans, and who are willing to share their knowledge. This includes Enki, and the Anunnaki god of wisdom and science whose emblem was the double helix of two entwined snakes. However, in the case, of Enki, the Sumerians tell us that he actually created modern humans by taking something from the gods, mixing it together and then implanting it into a female god. Enki is in fact associated with the double helix and is depicted performing experiments in a laboratory with the help of assistants dressed in lab coats and who interact with a flying disc which hovers overhead.


On August 13, 1491, the father of the famous mathematician Jerome Cardan, reported that he had seen a flash of brilliant light in the nighttime sky. And then, as he gazed into the heavens, he beheld "a sky boat." Later that evening he was shocked to discover seven men, dressed in "silken garments resembling togas, with glittering armor" beneath which he could see "purple undergarments of extraordinary splendor and beauty."

"I asked who they were," and they replied they "were a kind of men, made of air and subject like ourselves to birth and death. When questioned on the immortality of the soul, they replied that nothing survived. When I asked why they did not reveal to men the treasures of their knowledge, they replied that a special law imposed the heaviest of penalties if they dared to do so."


Sightings in modern America and most other countries are quite common (reviewed in Bergier, 1973; Jackson, 1992; Ritchie, 1994; UFO, 1988, 1991). Numerous sighting have even been reported at various government research and military facilities by military personnel. Presumably, or so the "authorities" tell us, these sightings are hallucinations or hoaxes, and can otherwise be explained as natural phenomenon.

For example, between 1947 and 1949, in northern New Mexico, near the Los Alamos nuclear test site, and in southern New Mexico, near Holloman Air Force base, unidentified objects and "green fireballs" were repeatedly observed by military personnel. On April 24, 1949, Commander Robert B. McLaughlin, as well as theodolite operators and engineers of the White Sands Proving Grounds in New Mexico, observed an elliptical object, about 100 feet in diameter that was seemingly extraterrestrial in origin. It shot past a Project Skyhook high-altitude balloon, going over 18,000 miles per hour and was visible only for a minute. McLaughlin and the others were convinced they had observed a "flying saucer... spaceships from another planet."

In June of 1965, Gemini astronauts, James McDivitt and pilot Edward White nervously radioed Mission Control to report their observations of a rapidly approaching "object" which they photographed. According to the astronauts, the huge mystery object not only approached but crossed their orbit. Later, these observation were explained away by NASA officials, as "sunspots."

In some cases, these mystery objects behave aggressively; particularly if approached by military aircraft.

On June 9, 1974, pilot, Lt. Colonel Toshio Nakamura and radio officer, Major Shiro Kubota were soaring through the heavens in their Japanese F-4EJ phantom fighter. Suddenly they began receiving numerous air defense radar warnings of an unidentified object in the skies near Japan. The chase was on, and when they reached 30,000 feet they saw it, shining brilliantly, disc-like, and red-orange. It was 30 feet in diameter and circled by windows and propulsion jets.

To their utter astonishment, the UFO dipped down, made a shallow turn and then suddenly reversed direction and hurtled directly at their phantom fighter. Nakamura quickly armed his 20-mm cannon and placed the speeding object in his gun sights. But then it was too close, threatening to hit head on.

Pilot Nakamura rolled and broke hard left, making a gut-wrenching dive, which caused the glowing red UFO to miss his fighter, "by inches," so claimed his co-pilot, Major Kuboto. But then, to their dismay, "it made a sharp turn and came at us again" missing them again by inches. And then it repeated the process crashing head on into the phantom causing the jet to explode into flames.

Both Nakamura and Kubota ejected from the plane. Unfortunately, Nakamura's parachute caught fire. He fell to a fiery death. Kubota landed in safety.

Later the Japanese authorities, after a lengthy investigation, issued a single terse statement as to their findings: The crash occurred after a midair collision with "an aircraft or object unknown."

Similarly, in Cuba 1967, and South Africa, 1977, jet fighters were scrambled in response to reports of UFOs. They never returned as all fighters mysteriously disintegrated.

A similar disaster befell Frederick Valentich on October 21, 1978, when he reported than an unknown object began circling and diving at him at extremely high speeds. According to the transcripts made by Air Traffic Controllers, he then exclaimed:

"It's not an aircraft--It's--ah--it's flying past me it's a long shape. I--er... such speed... the thing is just orbiting on top of me...Its got a green light and a sort of metallic's shiny on the outside...Ah, it just vanished... Oh no, there it is again....its not an aircraft..." he cried, and then, radio contact was lost.

Valentich's Cessna, and his body, were never found.

Many a pilot has a story to tell of encountering UFO's (but most prefer to keep their counsel for fear of ridicule). In July, 1942 a Royal Australian Air Force Pilot reported a dome shaped reflective "airfoil" about 150 feet long and 50 feet wide. For several minutes it flew alongside his aircraft before suddenly darting away and descending, disappearing beneath the ocean.

On June 24, 1947, pilot Kenneth Arnold was flying his single-engine DC-4 at 9,200 feet over the Cascade Mountains in Washington when he suddenly observed a formation of saucer shaped vehicles which zipped past him going between 1,650 to 1,350 miles per hour.

In some cases, an entire flight crew and radar operators on the ground below, observe the same phenomenon. For example, on September 10, 1951, an Air Force pilot reported seeing a round, silver, flat object about 30 feet in diameter, which was tracked by a Fort Monmouth radar operator.

On July 23, 1948, Captain C. S. Chiles and his copilot, J. B. Whitted, were flying an Eastern Airline DC-3 , just a few miles from Montgomery Alabama. Suddenly one of the crew noticed an unusual, dull red glow, and alerted the others. The dull red glow was being emitted from a wingless, cigar shaped object that was racing at an incredible speed directly at them. It was traveling well over 700 miles per hour, threatening to hit them head on. They were forced to make a harrowing dive as the object sped by less than 30 yards from their plane.

On February 10, 1951, the pilot and copilot of a four- engine cargo plane crossing the North Atlantic, noticed a bright yellow glow, which the pilot thought might be "a small city ahead." Then they realized the lights were coming from a circular ship, "shaped like a saucer" about 200 to 300 feet in diameter. Sudden the object began moving toward them "at a fantastic speed. It looked as though we were going to be engulfed." Then suddenly it reversed course and streaked away. Gander radar station in Newfoundland, reported tracking the unknown flying object, which they determined was moving at speeds in excess of 1,800 miles per hour.

It is not just hapless military pilots who may be subject to close encounters, but navy ships and military facilities, including secret air bases in the U.S. and Russia. For example, on March 5, 1945, sailors aboard the US transport, the Delaware, observed a spherical UFO rise from the ocean and then circle the ship before flying away at great speed.

However, even more impressive was the UFO observed by numerous servicemen at Malmstrom Air Force Base, the site for launching Minuteman missiles. On November 15, 1975, alarms went off and radar operators also reported the approach of an unidentified object, which observers described as a disc glowing orange, about the size of a football field. North American Air Defense Command radar also picked it up, and two F-106 jet fighters were scrambled to intercept the craft which simply disappeared.

Hundreds of similar reports have since been filed of unidentified craft appearing at Strategic Air Command installations over the years. Military authorities in Russia, Germany, Italy, and so on, report likewise, describing UFOs that not only monitor research and testing facilities, but which hurtle through the sky at astonishing speeds, leaving scrambled jet fighters in the dust.

In the summer of 1955, radar operators at Camp Hanford Atomic Works and the Nike missile site on Rattlesnake Ridge, in Washington, observed a "huge," 1/2 inch blip on their radar screens, indicating an unidentified flying object moving at around 20,000 miles per hour (by contrast, a blip made by jet fighter moving at top speeds may approximate 1/16 of an inch). Radar operators were in the middle of a shift change when the blip first appeared, and eight men observed the UFO on the radar. They immediately reported the intrusion and watched in amazement as the blip suddenly extended into a 1 inch curve, and then disappeared off their screen as it headed toward Canada. (Their radar was equipped to make a sweep every ten seconds, monitoring an area 150 miles in radius.)

Twenty seconds later it reappeared, made several impossible right and left turns at incredible speeds, and then disappeared off their screen as it headed towards Oregon. And then, it reappeared again, as did numerous tiny blips as the Canadian and American Air Defenses scrambled jets from Andrews Air Force Base, Gieger Field and McCord Air Force bases. But they were too late and it was moving to fast. The UFO made several more tight turns, headed out to sea, and again disappeared from their screens.

On October 27, 1975, staff Sergeant Danny Lewis was on security detail at the munitions storage area, at Loring Air Force Base in Main, where nuclear weapons were stored. That evening he spotted an unusual flying object approaching the base, flashing red and white lights. Slowly it began circling the nuclear weapons storage facilities.

Lewis immediately reported the sighting to the base commanders. Moreover, the object was spotted on radar, at which point in abruptly disappeared only to reappear the following evening, where it was again detected by radar as well as by a B-52 flight crew who observed it hovering just a few feet above the ground. They estimated it to be about 50 feet in length. One of the crewman reported: "There were these waves in front of the object, and all the colors were blending together. The object was solid, and we could not hear any noise coming form it."

However, on the same evening of October 27, about forty miles from where Sergeant Lewis first sighted the strange object, two men reported to authorities that they were driving along when their car was seized by some unknown force. They claimed that it carried them through the air at over 100 miles per hour.

On November 8, 1975, an unknown craft, shining red and white lights, approached Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Michigan. It was also spotted on radar as it approached the munitions storage facilities. Jets were scrambled but the object sped away doing over 1,150 miles per hour.

There are also mass reports of giant ships gliding through the blue skies and sometimes hovering over large cities, in plain view of the citizenry.

On February 25, 1942, a huge UFO suddenly appeared over Los Angeles which simply hung stationary. Military anti-aircraft defenses pounded away, having absolutely no effect on the huge luminous object which glided slowly through the skies before disappearing over the coast.

Similarly, on January 7, 1948, a large number of people in western Kentucky reported seeing a huge object, over 250 feet in diameter. It was racing through the sky at an astonishing speed. Most said it looked like an ice cream cone topped with a red glowing orb.

That same day, tower operators and the base commander at nearby Godman Air Force Base noted the same phenomenon. They ordered three Air National Guard F-51 Mustang fighters, which were coming in for a landing, to peel off and take a closer look. They were led by Captain Thomas Mantell.

Within minutes all pilots and their crew spied a tremendous object shaped "round like a teardrop." Being low on fuel, two of the Mustangs were forced to return to base. However, flight leader Mantell radioed he was going to take a closer look. That was the last they heard from him. A few hours later his body was found in the wreckage of his Mustang.

Repeatedly, during the last two weeks of August 25, 1951, hundreds of people observed strange objects in the skies over Lubbock Texas, which they described as "wing- shaped." On that same day the nearby Air Defense Command radar station reported tracking an unidentified object at 13,000 feet and traveling at 900 miles per hour.

On the evening of July 19, 1952, Air Traffic Controllers at Washington's National Airport, reported that their radar had picked up seven unidentified objects traveling about 1,300 miles per hour. Controllers at Andrews Air Force Base observed identical objects on their radar screens. The Air Force responded by sending two F-94 night fighters to investigate. However, as soon as the jets departed, the blips disappeared, only to reappear when the jets returned to base.

The jets were sent aloft again, but this time the blips remained visible. The lead fighter pilot reported that he could not only see the lights, but that they had zoomed up and were now surrounding his plane. As he radioed for instructions, the lights sped rapidly away and again disappeared from the radar screens.

On January 26, 1983, Monique O'Driscoll and her 15 year old daughter were driving at night in the outskirts of Brewster New York. Much to their astonishment they observed, hovering over the tree tops, a 200 foot wide boomerang shaped object--like a flying wing. It was flashing dozens of multicolored yellow, blue, red and white lights. As the hovering ship slowly glided toward them, O'Driscoll, more curious than frightened, stopped her car by a frozen pond and got out. She noticed the multi-colored lights were reflected in the ice, flashing in sequence.

According to O'Driscoll, "My daughter was screaming for me to come back... but I stood there just amazed, looking at this thing just a stone's throw away... I looked up and was dazzled by the lights... I shielded my eyes and saw this huge, very dark gray metallic surface with all kinds of dark grill work with pipes and tubes running up and down it. They all seemed to be connected to some type of circular-like depressions in the middle of it...Then the object made a slow tight turn, as if spinning on a wheel, and slowly drifted toward the trees."

Rita Rivera had also parked near the pond, several hundred feet away, and like O'Driscol, she saw the same object as did ten other area residents who reported observing a boomerang shaped, light-beaming object glide silently and slowly over their homes.

One week later, on March 24, over the course of a two and a half hour time span, almost 2,000 individuals would report witnessing a huge, boomerang, or V-shaped object slowly gliding through the sky. Some said it was the size of an aircraft carrier, other claimed it looked like a flying city. However, all agreed that it made no sound.

And then, on June 14 and July 24, the V-shaped object appeared again, beaming down fantastic colored lights as it hovered over the Indian Point nuclear power plant near Buchanan, New York. It was witnessed by over a dozen guards. Then, 10 days later, the object reappeared and approached within 500 feet of the guards. They said it was titanic, the size of three football fields.

On March 30 and 31, 1990, the Belgian Air Force received over 2,700 reports from both civilian and military observers of a huge triangular object. Initially it was observed to be moving quiet slowly, around 20 MPH. Two separate NATO radar stations also picked up the object. F16 fighters were scrambled, and they too picked up the object on their radar, at which point it accelerated, reaching speeds of several thousand MPH before disappearing.

Sometimes these sightings are accompanied by power outings.

On October 18, 1973, an Army Reserve helicopter crew spotted a cigar shaped object, giving off a brilliant red light, which was flying at the same speed and altitude as their chopper. They radioed air traffic control only to discover their radio no longer worked and that their compass was spinning wildly (later it had to be replaced). The object was coming closer.

"It was shaped like a fat cigar" according to pilot, L. J. Coyne. "It has a big, gray, metallic looking hull about sixty feet long.... with a glowing red light...on its dome. It was shining brightly through the bubble canopy (of their helicopter)... turning everything green inside."

Suddenly the object began racing directly at them, head on, as if attempting to ram them. However, at the last second it simply stopped in mid air, at which point the chopper crew realized they had no power and were losing control. Suddenly the object sped away, and their radio and power returned.

Power failures and massive blackouts, in fact, have followed numerous UFO reports, including the great Northeast blackout in 1965, in which 6 states and New York City, lost power. Similarly, on July 1, 1977 a luminous UFO suddenly appeared over a NATO base at Aviano Italy, and hovered for some time above an area where military aircraft were housed. This was accompanied by a sudden widespread power failure.

As noted, on June 14 and July 24, 1984, a large boomerang shaped object was observed approaching the Indian Point nuclear power plant in New York, gliding slowly toward the reactors. An officer inside the plant began filming the object using a remote video security camera that was mounted outside on a 95 foot pole. Even so, the guard had to pan the camera 180 degrees in order to capture the entire object on film. And then, inexplicably the power plant lost power, knocking out the security and alarm systems, the computer systems for security and communication, and even the movement detection sensors located through the area.

Be it auto engines stalling, televisions conking out, radios going on the blink, lights dimming, and so on, loss of power are part of the common lore of UFO sightings, even those plaguing other countries or their military facilities. In October, 1989, for example, an unidentified object began hovering over a highly sensitive and top secret Soviet air base, near Vornoezh, paralyzing Soviet air defenses and radar until it departed.


In 1987 the Russian deployed, Phobos 1 and 2 which were unmanned robotic satellites whose purpose was to explore Mars and its tiny moon, Phobos. Both probes were in fact intended to land on Phobos. Nevertheless, Phobos 1 was lost soon after it approached Mars, and Phobos 2 seemingly suffered a similar fate, but only after something exceedingly unusual occurred. There is some suggestion that it may have been attacked by an alien space craft.

On March 28, 1989, Phobos 2 entered the orbit of Mars, and positioned itself 76 miles from its tiny, and possibly hollow moon. Slowly the Russian spacecraft began maneuvers which would enable it to fly in tandem with Phobos. However, when it moved within 26 miles of this Martian moonlet the Russian craft was seemingly attacked and possibly destroyed.

Specifically, while facing and orbiting Mars, Phobos 2 switched on its cameras and began scanning the Martian surface. While in the process of aligning itself with Phobos the camera managed to snap two last photographs before radio communication was suddenly lost. One of these pictures revealed an "inexplicable" long thin "elliptical shadow" of a huge extraterrestrial object that was over 12 miles long. The twenty kilometer shadow hovered above Phobos 2 and was sensed by both the infrared and optical cameras. And then, Phobos ceased all further transmissions, until several months later, when several signals from the craft were transmitted, and then again nothing.

In the days following this incident, a news dispatch from Moscow, which was released by the European News Agency, read in part:

"The space probe, Phobos 2 while orbiting above Mars... photographed an unidentified object on the Martian surface seconds before losing contact."

A week later, the authoritative science periodical, Aviation Week & Space Technology (4/10/89) quoted the chairman of the Soviet Space Administration as stating: "One image appears to include an odd-shaped object between the spacecraft and Mars. It may be debris in the orbit of Phobos, or could be Phobos 2's autonomous propulsion subsystem that was jettisoned after the space craft was injected into Mar's orbit. We just don't know."

Phobos is not very big, the size of a small city actually, about 13 by 17 by 12 miles in diameter. It is of the darkest objects in the solar system and orbits only 3,700 miles above Mars. This is incredibly close, much too close for a moon, but not for an artificial satellite. In fact, it is ideal for a space station.

And, this moon appears to be hollow, like an artificial satellite.

Some scientists have made the rather incredible suggestion that aliens are employing Phobos as a base of operations. That is, aliens are supposedly living inside the Martian moon and using black Phobos as an observational satellite and space station; observing, perhaps, the Earth. Presumably, at least according to some, it is these "aliens" who shot down the Russian Phobos satellite.

Although it is likely that the destruction of Phobos was due to an unexplained anomaly, it is noteworthy that the most recent photos of Mar's hollow moon and, perhaps, artificial satellite, have confirmed the presence of dozens of parallel track marks. These parallel grooves are cut at a uniform depth and width into the soft soil and run along the surface for a considerable distance in straight lines. These deep tracks and grooves almost appear to be man made, or, rather, machine made; by some type of equipment capable of movement.

Moreover, these tracks lead directly to and from, and curl up and over the lip of a miles wide circular portal-like entry way; i.e. a huge crater, where they then disappear inside. Curiously, although these parallel tracks could be dismissed as little more than unusual oddities, apparently they do not appear in the earliest photographs of the black face of fear.



The cases reviewed above represent only a sample of thousands of sightings reported by witnesses in the U.S. alone. Perhaps most of these are hoaxes. Maybe some are due to mass hallucinations. Indeed, whereas the Phobos incident may have been an anomaly, likewise perhaps almost every single sighting and almost every single report of visitors from the stars, are invalid and are based on unexplained anomalies.

Of the thousands of sighting that have been examined, the Air Force and various government and public agencies as well as private debunkers, have been able to debunk or explain away 95% of all UFO reports; in many cases by inventing somewhat implausible and in fact, unbelievable scenarios, involving even star light from the planet Venus. However, 5% of these sightings cannot be explained away, even after the most unlikely of scenarios are put forth.

Of course, that doesn't mean that these sightings are real, that UFO's truly exist. Indeed, if these events are so common, how come most of us have never seen a UFO? How come there are no convincing video tapes of flying saucers?

On the other hand, rape and murder are common. In the U.S., from 1990 through 1999 there were over 1.5 million reported rapes; and it has been estimated that another five million were never reported. If rapes are so common, how come most of us have never seen one, even on the news? How come there are so few eyewitnesses and no convincing photos or videotape?


Can a lizard comprehend a man?
Can a man comprehend a god?
Who dares speak for god?
Even the Gods have Gods...

We are told that the Universe is only 12 billion years old. And how do we know this? Because there are stars which shine in the darkness of night which are 12 billion light years away. But away from what? Relative to what? Relative to the Earth, and the Earth is not located at ground zero of the big bang. Distance from the Earth is not only meaningless, but those who promote this dogma completely ignore the likelihood that there are stars that are so far away we are at present incapable of detecting them. There are stars that may have died so long ago that their light will never be detected.

Despite dogmatic and scientific pretensions to the otherwise, we have no idea as to the age of the Universe.Those who claim otherwise, are liars.

***** The Earth is 4.6 billion years young, whereas the age and antiquity of the Universe is unknown. Indeed, the theory of the "big bang" appears to be a myth, and it may well be that the cosmos has no beginning and no end. Although speculation and theories abound, it is at present impossible to provide a birth date for the Universe or the emergence of the very first DNA macromolecule.

This Universe is comprised of galactic clusters and swirling star formations, that like introns, contain stars within stars and perhaps in regard to the more distant galactic clusters, even galaxies within galaxies. Each of these trillions of galaxies, like our own Milky Way, are likely comprised of billions of sun centered solar systems with innumerable swirling orbiting worlds and planets, many probably quite like our own.

And, just as our world was likely repeatedly contaminated with all manner of life, identical genetic seeds have likely rained down on innumerable worlds. Life has had ample opportunity to take root, flourish, and evolve on worlds similar and shockingly different from our own.

"And when you look up to the sky and behold the sun and the moon and the stars, the whole heavenly host, you must not be lured into bowing down to them or serving them. These the Lord your God allotted to other peoples..." Deuteronomy 4.19

There are billions of ancient galaxies consisting of trillions of aged solar systems that are likely ringed with planets -many probably quite like our own. And, just as Life has "evolved" on this world, it could be predicted that Life has emerged on at least a few of these planetary archipelagoes including creatures who long ago "evolved" in a fashion similar to woman and man.

On Earth, the leaping, branching, and step-wise progression which has led from multi-cellular creature to cartilaginous fish, to bony fish... amphibian, reptile, repto-mammal, therapsid, mammal, primate and woman and man, has taken place over the last billion years. Given that over 90% of human DNA is dormant and silent and as tens of thousands of silent genes (and almost 3 billion base pairs) have yet to be expressed, the likelihood is that evolutionary metamorphosis on this planet will continue well into the future.

Likewise, given what has taken place on this planet over the course of the last billion years and the human-genetic potential which is yet to be realized, if similar DNA-based life forms exists elsewhere, then those who dwell in the more ancient corners of the cosmos may have evolved beyond modern humans billions of years before the Earth became a twinkle in God's eye.... tens of billions of years before the first upright human emerged from the mists of time.

When we consider that the light from innumerable stars may have winked out of existence billions if not trillions of years ago, that there may be galaxies so distant their light cannot yet be detected, and as current estimates of the age of the Universe are based on detectable light and meaningless distances, the age of the Universe and the ancestry of life may in fact extend interminably into the long ago.

Consider: What might be the technological and scientific capabilities of a civilization a million years older than our own? What of a civilization that has had ten million, or a billion, or 20 billion years to seek technological perfection? They might seem as "gods" even if they were merely human.

And yet, it could be expected that these ancient ones might have evolved new brain tissues and additional layers of gray matter and neocortex... gaining intellectual and perceptual capabilities which provide not just a "6th sense" but a 10th sense, and so on, completely eclipsing all aspects of human cognition, perception, and intelligence.

Consider, of the 3% of human DNA which is required to build a human being, 20% of that is used to create a brain, and another 30% of that DNA is expressed in the process of running and maintaining the brain (Brain, 1990). That is, 50% of the 3% of DNA which is coded, serves the human brain. Hence, since 97% of the 140,000 or more genes (and their 3 billion or more base pairs) that make up the human genome are repressed, up to 50% of that and thus perhaps as many as 50,000 repressed genes and over a billion base pairs of nucleotides may be available for future cerebral metamorphosis and expansion of the brain.

Since increased complexity and progressive cerebral encephalization is characteristic of the evolution of brain-based life on this planet, the same could be expected on other complex-life bearing worlds. Consider, again that the Cro-Magnon peoples of the Upper Paleolithic had a brain that was 1/3 larger than modern humans (Joseph, 2000a).

Given evidence of increased brain size in previous species of humanity, coupled with the as yet untapped genetic potential, then it can be predicted that those creatures evolving in the more ancient corners of the cosmos may have acquired more complex neuronal capabilities, as well as increased association and assimilation neocortical tissue, and may have evolved additional nuclei and layers of neocortex, exceeding the 6 to 7 layered neocortex that is characteristic of mammals and primates--and this may have transpired billions of years before the creation of the Earth. In fact, given the unknown antiquity of the universe, the brains of some exobiological organisms may consist of 8, 10, 12 or more layers of neocortex and greatly increased neocortical, perceptual, intellectual, and memory capacity, thus completely dwarfing the human brain in neuronal and cognitive ability.

In fact, these ancient ones may have long ago engineered their own DNA and thus genetically engineered their own metamorphosis and purposefully developed cerebral tissues that might enable them to analyze, see relationships, or comprehend and manipulate phenomenon that modern humans cannot even conceive much less comprehend. These peoples, these ancient ones, would be as "gods" even if they were merely human.

And what are the powers of a "god?" What might be the creative and intellectual potency of a being whose brain and civilization has evolved over tens of billions of years, who has likely engineered their own DNA, and who has 10 or 20 or more layers of neocortex --compared to those seven we call our own?

From the perspective of those astrobiological organisms who evolved in the ancient regions of the cosmos, the human brain and mind may seem to be just one small step above a frog or a reptile; which, in many ways it is.

Conversely, the human ability to comprehend the intellectual, scientific and technological accomplishments and capabilities of an alien brain organized in this evolutionary advanced fashion, might be analogous to a lizard's ability to comprehend a man. That is, the mental, intellectual, creative, and technological capabilities of creatures who began to evolve tens of billions of years ago, would lie well beyond human understanding. They would be as gods even if they were merely human.

Might this also explain the claims of the ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, Hebrews, Greeks, Romans, (and many other ancient peoples) that "God" and the "gods" looked and behaved like humans and possessed human attributes including egotism, jealousy, irrational rages... including perhaps a tendency to brag and to take credit for achievements not their own --such as the creation of the universe.

Or, could it be that an incredibly ancient, "superior" life form which lives or exists in a manner or physical dimension that is beyond our comprehension, may have been "playing god" and long ago fashioned this world, our Earth, our DNA and sewn the seeds of all life?

And... if humans are in fact created in the image of the "Gods," having descended, and ascended, from similar genetic seeds... and if evolutionary metamorphosis is an ongoing phenomenon... then perhaps we too possess the genetic potential to be as gods... to be as God... and... the genetic potential... to not only eat of the fruit of knowledge... but to evolve.... beyond good and evil.

The Origins of Life
Table of Contents
Table of Contents

Biological Big Bang

Life On Earth Came From Other Planets