Rhawn Gabriel Joseph, Ph.D.

Biblical accounts of creation tell us that increasingly complex life forms emerged upon the planet, in a step-wise, "day to day" sequence, beginning with simple creatures and culminating, on day 6, with the creation of woman and man. In fact, this same progression is evident from the fossil record, and was first detailed in the Sumerian and Biblical accounts of Genesis.

Almost 6000 years ago the Sumerians, a cultured people whose cities and civilization eventually gave rise to Babylon, explained that the first humans were exceedingly "primitive" and unsuitable to perform the work required by the gods. The gods required intelligent and skilled workers to tend their farms and gardens.

According to the ancient Sumerians, Enki, the Anunnaki god of science and wisdom, decided to rectify the situation by taking tissue from the gods, mixing it with other substances, so as to create the first true human beings; humans that were fashioned in the image of the gods and provided the spirit, the living soul of god. Enki's emblem was the sign of the double helix, two entwined snakes.

The Biblical account in Genesis echoes the Sumerian account: "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. So God created man in his image, in the image of God created he him; male and female he created them." In the account provided by Genesis there is also a second act of human creation by a "Lord God,." This Lord God appears upon the scene after "God ended his work... and rested on the seventh day." As the men and women created on the sixth day were not suitable to farm the land or manage his herds, the "Lord God" engaged in another act of creation because "there was not a man to till the ground.... And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden and there he put the man whom he had formed."

Thus we see that the man created after the seventh day differs from the man created on the sixth day, in two important respects. The man created on the sixth day, was created by "God," as part of a natural progression beginning with simple creatures. This first man, however, was unable "to till the land." The man fashioned after the seventh day, after "God" had rested, was created by the "Lord God" after all the natural sequential acts of creation had come to an end. And, this new man, created after the seventh day was able to till the gardens, and was provided with a "living soul."

Because the Earth was already swarming with these more primitive humans, Cain (the son of Adam and Eve) worried aloud to the Lord God, that he may be killed: "I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass that everyone that findeth me shall slay me... And the Lord Set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him" (Genesis, 4: 14-15).

Thus we may presume that the first men and women did not possess a "living soul," were exceedingly primitive and violent, and lacked the intellectual capability to perform the tasks assigned--at least, as stated by the Sumerians and echoed in Genesis. "There was not a man to till the ground." They were like animals. They had no souls. They were Neanderthals.

By contrast, the second creation resulted in men and women who were not only created in the image of the Gods, but who were highly intelligent, and who received something of God, becoming a "living soul." Unlike the men and women created on the sixth day, this newly created woman and man were so creative, intelligent, and demonstrated such wisdom, that the "the Lord God..." proclaimed "man had become as one of us, to know good and evil."


Neanderthals, archaics, and other peoples of the Middle Paleolithic were not very smart and used simple stones for tools. In fact, they constructed and made essentially the same stone tools over and over again for perhaps 200,000 years, until around 35,000 B.P., with little variation or consideration of alternatives (Binford, 1982; Gowlett, 1984; Mellars, 1989). Neanderthals greatly lacked in creativity, initiative, imagination, and tended to create simple stone tools that served a single purpose.

As neatly summed up by an ardent defender of Neanderthal cognitive capabilities (Hayden, 1993, p. 139), "as a rule, there is no evidence of private ownership or food storage, no evidence for the use of economic resources for status or political competition, no elaborate burials, no ornaments or other status display items, no skin garments requiring intensive labor to produce, no tools requiring high energy investments, no intensive regional exchange for rare items like sea shells or amber, no competition for labor to produce economic surpluses and no corporate art or labor intensive rituals in deep cave recesses to impress onlookers and help attract labor."

Neanderthals, tended to live in the "here and now," with little ability to think about or consider the distant future (Binford, 1973, 1982; Dennell, 1985; Mellars, 1989, 1996); the only notable exception, the future life after death.

This notable dichotomy is in part a function of the differential evolution of the frontal versus the temporal lobes. The frontal lobes are the senior executive of the brain and is responsible for initiative, goal formation, long term planning, the generation of multiple alternatives, and the consideration of multiple alternative consequences (Joseph, 1986a, 1988a, 1999b). The frontal lobes are the source of creativity and imagination, whereas the temporal lobes are the seat of the soul. It is the temporal lobes which were maximally developed in archaic and Neanderthals, whereas the frontal lobe would increase in size by a third in the transition from archaic humans to Cro-Magnon woman and man.

Based on a gross analysis of the skull and casts made of the inner surface of skull as well as other evidence some of which will be reviewed here, it is apparent that "archaic" Neanderthal men and women possessed a well developed inferior temporal lobe whereas the frontal lobe is sloped and stunted (Joseph, 1996, 2000a). It is the temporal lobes, and the limbic structures buried within which are directly implicated in the generation of personal, emotional, and religious experience including the ability to from long term emotional attachments and to feel intense love (Gloor, 1997l Joseph, 1992a, 1999b, 2000a; MacLean, 1990).

In fact, Neanderthals provided loving care for friends and family who had been injured or maimed, enabling them to live many more years despite their grievous injuries. For example, the skeleton of one Neanderthal male, who was about age 45 when he died, had been cared for a number of years following profoundly crippling injuries. His right arm had atrophied, and his lower arm and hand had apparently been ripped or bitten off, and his left eye socket , right shoulder, collarbone, and both legs were badly injured. Obviously someone loved and tenderly cared for this man. He was no doubt a father, a husband, a brother, and son, and someone in his family not only provided long term loving care to make him comfortable in this life, but prepared him for the next life as well.

Neanderthals were unable to fashion complex tools or think complex thoughts, yet they were people of passion who experienced profound emotions and love; made possible by the limbic system and temporal lobe. In fact, it is because they had the limbic capacity to experience love, spiritual awe, and religious concerns, that these expressions of love continued beyond death. Thus the Neanderthals carefully buried their dead, providing them with food and even sprinkling the bodies with seven different types of blooming, blossoming, fragrant flowers.


Neanderthals were an exceedingly violent, murderous people, as the remnants of their skeletons preserved for so many eons attests. Many of their fossils still betray the cruel ravages of deliberately and violently inflicted wounds.

They also appear to have systematically engaged in female infanticide, and displayed a willingness to eat almost anything on four or two legs--including other Neanderthals. In one site, dated to over 100,000 years B.P., Neanderthals decapitated eleven of their fellow Neanderthals, and then enlarged the base of each skull (the foramen magnum) so the brains could be scooped out and presumably eaten. Even the skulls of children were treated in this fashion.

In fact, they would throw the bones and carcasses of other Neanderthals into the refuse pile. In one cave, a collection of over 20 Neanderthals were found mixed up with the remains of other animals and refuse. Presumably, these were enemies or just hapless strangers, innocent cave dwellers who were attacked and sometimes eaten after being brutally killed.

Hence, with the obvious exception of "friends," mates, and family, Neanderthals often saw one another as a potential meal, and had almost no regard for a stranger's innate humanness. These were a violent, murderous, ritualistic people, and strangers were often killed and eaten.

These characteristics, however, are also associated with religious fervor. Among ancient and present day peoples, violence, murder, ritual cannibalism, and even the sacrifice and murder of children are common religious practices.

Violence and murder are also under the control of the limbic system. And it is the limbic system which mediates religious and spiritual experience.



The Cro-Magnon were a very handsome people with thin hips, broad shoulders, aquiline noses, prominent chins, small even perfect teeth, high rounded foreheads, and with brains almost a third larger than those of the average woman and man today, i.e. 1800 cc vs 1350 ccs. There was nothing ape-like or Neanderthal about these people.

These were a tall and noble looking race. Consider, whereas the average height of a present day male averages (depending on country) from between five foot four to five foot 9 inches, Cro-Magnon men stood 6 foot tall, though the women were somewhat smaller and more delicate. Compared to those who came before or after them, and until the advent of the 20th century, these people were giants and they may well have appeared as "gods;" at least to the Neanderthals who managed to hang on for another 10,000 years after the Cro-Magnons had appared upon the scene. In fact, it was not until the 20th century and with significant changes in nutrition and diet that people in the Western world grew by almost half a foot in height, the men reaching five feet nine inches on average.

The Cro-Magnon were also intellectual giants. They were accomplished artists, musicians, craftsmen, sorcerers, and extremely talented hunters, fishermen, and highly efficient gatherers and herbalists. When they emerged upon the scene over 35,000 years ago, they carried and fashioned tools and weapons that had never before been seen. They had the know how to make and bake pottery and construct clay figurines as well as construct kilns and burn coal so as to fire and mold their creations.

From the time of Homo Erectus (1.9 million to 500,000 B.P), humans had utilized fire to keep warm, to provide light, to cook their food, and to ward off animals. However, the Cro-Magnon learned over 30,000 years ago how to make fire using the firestone; iron pyrite which was repeatedly struck with a flint thus making sparks which could easily ignite brush.

They also created the first rudimentary blast furnaces which were capable of emitting enormous amounts of heat, so as to fire clay. This was accomplished by digging a tiny tunnel into the bottom of the hearth which allowed air to be drawn in. Indeed, 30,000 years ago these people were making fire hardened ceramics and clay figures of animals and females with bulging buttocks and breasts--which are presumed to be the first goddesses.

Many of these female figurines were shaped so that they tapered into points. Because they were pointed they could be stuck into the ground or into some other substance either for ornamental or supernatural purposes, e.g., household goddesses or as fertility figures and earth mothers. In fact, much of the art produced, be it finely crafted "laurel leafs" or other artistic masterpieces, served ritual, spiritual, and esthetic functions. However, they also created art that was meant to be looked at, owned and admired, and for trade, as jewelry and household decorations, and as highly prized possessions as well as for religious reverence.

Likewise, the first musical instruments were created by these people some 25,000 years ago. These included wooden drums and tiny flutes and whistles.

These peoples were also the first to weave baskets, and the first to use needle and thread in order to make finely fitted clothes which were carefully and deftly sewn together. Unlike all those who had come before them they decorated their clothes and tools and weapons with elaborate designs and geometric and animal symbols.

Within their underground cathedrals they left behind elaborate and complex paintings, some of which were almost 3-dimensional. These peoples demonstrated an esthetic artistic awareness and mastery that was unprecedented and which equals the ability of any living artist today.

Thirty five thousand years ago, Cro-Magnon were painting animals not only on walls but on ceilings, utilizing rich yellows, reds, and browns in their paintings and employing the actual shape of the cave walls so as to conform with and give life-like dimensions, including the illusion of movement to the creature they were depicting. Many of their engraving on bones and stones also show a complete mastery of geometric awareness and they often used the nature contours of the cave walls, including protuberances, to create a 3-dimensional effect.

The drawing or carving often became a harmonious or rather, an organic part of the object, wall, ceiling, or tool upon which it was depicted. The Cro-Magnon drew and painted scenes in which animals mated, defecated, fought, charged, and/or were fleeing and dying from wounds inflicted by hunters. The Cro-Magnon cave painters were exceedingly adept at recreating the scenes of everyday life. Moreover, most of the animals were drawn to scale, that is, they were depicted in their actual size; and all this, 35,000 years ago (e.g. Chauvet, et al., 1997).

The Cro-Magnon obtained their colors from natural earth pigments, such as ocher, a clay that contains a variety of iron minerals. However, whereas Neanderthals and H. habilis apparently had a fondness for red, the Cro-Magnon learned to separate and mix these pigments creating a variety of hues and colors. In order to mix and to arrive at the correct consistency, a variety of lubricants were employed such as blood, urine, vegetable and fruit juices, animal fat, and the contents of eggs. The separate colors were then mixed in various hollowed out rocks and shells.

The Cro-Magnon artist used a brush, as well as his or her fingers in order to paint. In fact, they used a variety of different brushes which enabled the artist to create different shades and strokes. In some cases the artist simply blew the paint onto the drawing via a tubular bone, thus making a mist-like spray.

The Cro-Magnon artists had also invented abstract impressionism, as many of their paintings and artworks were exceedingly abstract, surrealistic, or comprised of geometric forms and concentric shapes and ovals which in some cases formed abstract versions of animals or women. Indeed, they displayed an artistic mastery equal to that of any modern master, including Picasso. Awe stuck by these Paleolithic masterpieces Picasso complained that in 30,000 years "we have learned nothing new. We have invented nothing." Indeed, the geometric and angular form of representation employed by these Paleolithic Masters appears again and again throughout history and is found in Egyptian, Sumerian, and even early Greek art (Joseph, 1993, 2000a).

The origins of the Cro-Magnon peoples, however, are completely unknown. There are no transitional forms that link them with Neanderthals or the still primitive "early modern" peoples of the Middle Paleolithic who were decidedly more archaic in appearance. Neanderthals did not evolve into Cro-Magnons, and they coexisted for almost 15,000 years, until finally the Neaderthals disappeared from the face of the Earth, around 30,000 years B.P. (Mellars, 1996). Indeed, the Neanderthals were of a completely different race; and not just physically, but genetically, for when they died out, so too did their genetic heritage and all traces of their DNA (Ovchinnikov et al., 2000).

By contrast, although modern human DNA differs significantly from Neanderthal DNA,"modern" human DNA traces it ancestral lineage to ancestors living in Africa about 250,000 years ago (Stoneking & Cann, 1989; Vigilant et al. 1991). Moreover, this later date is almost identical to that given by the people of ancient Sumer, for according to the Sumerians Kings lists, the Anunnaki created these first god-kings, over 240,000 years ago (Roux, 1992).

Thirty thousand years ago, and with the demise of the Neanderthals, the Cro-Magnons gained dominion over the earth. And it is thirty thousand years ago that the ancient Egyptians claim that first kings came to rule Egypt, and that these kings were gods.

In comparison to all those who had come before them, and the Neanderthals who still lived in adjacent lands, the Cro-Magnon were so physically, intellectually, technologically, culturally and genetically advanced, and had such a huge brain, and they appeared so suddenly upon the Earth, that they may well have been created by God and in the image of the Gods.... knowing good and evil.


The Sumerians in fact tell us that these peoples, these titans and heroes of old were two thirds divine, and one-third mortal. Gilgamesh, the Sumerians tell us in the "Gilgamesh Cycles," was one of the divine kings who ruled the predeluvial city of Eresch. And although two thirds god and a great hero, Gilgamesh was still a man and felt love, hate, sadness, joy, hope and despair, and who was forever seeking adventure. It was while on one of these adventures that he came upon a long haired, naked and powerful wild man from the mountains, Enkidu, who was more beast than man.

Gilgamesh (or the Gilgamesh people) at first struggles with, then befriends, and humanizes his half-human half-animal friend Enkidu. And part of the civilizing process involves complete sexual satiation. Unlike the hairy naked beast-women of Enkidu's tribe who have sex cycles similar to animals, the women of Eresch, being part human part goddesses, can have sex at all times.

Enkidu transcends his beastly origins, and through sex becomes wise. He also becomes a more fitting friend for Gilgamesh and together they roam far and wide and undertake a number of heroic adventures.

But then comes the day that Enkidu (or the Enkidu people) grew sick and after a 12 day illness, finally died. Gilgamesh (or the Gilgamesh people) is stunned with grief. Horrified and feeling helpless in the face of death, Gilgamesh goes in search of immortality... the tree of life... And for this and other crimes of knowledge and wisdom, Enlil, the Anunnaki king of the gods, sentences Gilgamesh to die.


The spiritual belief systems of the Cro-Magnon and other peoples of the Upper Paleolithic, completely outstripped those of their predecessors in complexity, originality, and artistic and symbolic accomplishments. As the brain and man and woman evolved, so too did their spiritual beliefs. Hence, the Cro-Magnon conception of, and ability to symbolically express the spirit world, became much more complex as well, undergoing what has been described as a "symbolic explosion" (Bandi 1961; Kuhn 1955; Leroi-Gurhan 1964, 1982; Prideaux 1973).

The Cro-Magnon practiced complex religious rituals and apparently were the first peoples to have arrived at the conception of "god." However, it was not a male god who they worshipped but female goddesses who were attended by animals and animal-head shaman.

By 35,000 years ago the Cro-Magnon were painting, drawing, and etching bear and mammoth, dear and horse, and pregnant females and goddesses in the recesses of dark and dusky caverns (Bandi 1961; Chauvet et al., 1996; Leroi-Gurhan 1964, 1982; Prideaux 1973). The pregnant females include Venus statuettes, many of which were fertility goddesses. The Cro-Magnon were well aware of the differences between a slim sexy woman and a fertility Goddess for they were able to draw both. In fact, these were the first people to paint and etch what today might be considered Paleolithic porno. That is, in addition to pregnant fertility goddesses they drew and painted slim, shapely, naked and nubile young maidens in various positions of repose (Joseph, 1993, 2000a).

It is noteworthy that even 35,000 years ago and continuing for the next 25,000 years, the Cro-Magnon artist often drew and painted over existing drawings, including paintings which were hidden away in deep recesses of dark underground caverns that were extremely difficult to get to. This indicates that the location within the cave was of particular mystical, spiritual, or at least ritualistic significance, particularly in that many paintings were in out of the way places where one had to crawl long distance through tiny spaces and along rather tortuous routes to get to them. In fact, not just the location but the journey to these hidden recesses may have been of ritualistic significance perhaps relating to birth or even rebirth following death.


As is evident from their cave art and symbolic accomplishments, the nether world of the Cro-Magnon and other peoples of the Upper Paleolithic, was haunted by the spirits and souls of the living, the dead, and those yet to be born, both animal and human (Brandon 1967; Campbell 1988; Kuhn 1955; Prideaux 1973).

Upper Paleolithic peoples apparently believed these souls and spirits could be charmed and controlled by hunting magic, and through the spells of sorcerers and shamans. Hence, in conjunction with the worship of the goddess, the Cro-Magnons also relied on shamans and priests.

Hundreds of feet beneath the earth, the likeness of one ancient shaman attired in animal skins and stag antlers, graces the upper wall directly above the entrance to the 20,000-25,000 year-old grand gallery at Les Trois-Freres in southern France (Prideaux 1973). Galloping, running, and swirling about this ancient sorcerer are bison, stag, horse, deer, and presumably their spirits and their souls. Oddly, images of an almost identical "sorcerer" appear again in ancient Sumerian and Babylonian inscriptions fashioned four to six thousand years ago.

They also believed in and worshipped the goddess who was associated with the fertility of the earth, as well as the moon and the stars. One great goddess was carved in limestone over the entrance to an underground cathedral in Laussel, France, over 25,000 years ago. She was painted in the colors of life and fertility, blood red. Her left hand still rests upon her pregnant belly whereas in her right hand she holds the horned crescent of the moon which is engraved with thirteen lines, the number of moon cycles in a solar year. She was a goddess of life, linked to the mysteries of the heavens and the magical powers of the moon whose 30 day cycle corresponds with the menstrual cycle which issues from a woman's life giving womb. The Cro-Magnon believed in god. God was a woman.


In order to view many of these Cro-Magnon paintings and "religious" statues and shrines, one has to enter the hidden entrance of an underground cave, and crawl a considerable distance, sometimes hundreds of yards, through a twisting, narrowing, pitch black tunnel before reaching these Upper Paleolithic underground Cathedrals. Here the Cro-Magnon would light candles and lamps, performing magical and spiritual rituals as the painted animals and spirits wavered in the cave light.

The nature and location of the Cro-Magnon cathedrals, which have been found throughout Europe, and the nature of the tortuous routes to get to them, and the effect of cave light bringing these paintings to life, is significant as it embraces features associated with after death experiences as retold by present day as well as ancient peoples.

In the ancient Egyptian and Tibetan Books of the Dead, and has been reported among many of those who have undergone a "near death" or "life after death" experience, being enveloped in a dark tunnel is commonly experienced soon after death. It is only as one ascends the tunnel that one will see in the decreasing distance, a light, the "light" of "Heaven" and of paradise. Once embraced by the light "the recently dead" may be greeted by the souls of dead relatives, friends, and/or radiant human or animal-like entities (Eadie, 1992; Rawling 1978; Ring 1980).

Given the nature of their rituals, shamanic images, and goddess figurines, including the symbolism of flight associated with death, it thus appears that the Cro-Magnon were probably the first people to engage in magic and sorcery and may have been the first to develop notions of heaven and god and goddesses and the first to invent priests and shamans.

And, because the Cro-Magnons obviously believed in an after-life, they buried their dead with food, weapons, flowers, jewelry, clothing, pendants, rings, necklaces, multifaceted tools, head bands, beads, bracelets and so on. The Cro-Magnon were a profoundly spiritual people and they fully prepared the dead for the journey to the spirit world, equipping them so that they could live for all eternity in the land of the gods.


"And it came to pass when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose... There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown." -Genesis 6.1-4.

Six foot tall, with a massive brain and perfect body, the Cro-Magnons strode to and fro upon the Earth, much like gods. As retold in Genesis, they were in fact so god-like, and the women so god-beautiful, that the son's of God descended from the heavens to make love with these ladies and make these women their wives.

Admittedly, these stories may well by myths. And yet, it is obvious and apparent that these intellectual and physical giants had indeed eaten of the fruit of the tree of knowledge.



The achievements of the Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnon were not merely limited to art, ceramics, music, and spirituality, as they constantly experimented with and created new inventions such as the sewing needle, pointed burins, highly efficient cutters and scrapers, and the spear thrower. This device consisted of a spear that was fitted into a long hooked rod, about 1-2 feet in length.

Via the spear thrower a Cro-Magnon hunter or warrior could toss his weapon an incredible distance and at a tremendous velocity thus greatly enhancing his killing power and range. In effect, the spear thrower acted as an extension of a man's arm and enabled a man to almost double the distance in which he could throw a spear. He could easily impale and kill an animal or another man standing anywhere from 70 to 150 yards away.

Like all their tools, the spear throwers were elaborately decorated with fine carvings, etchings, drawings and paintings of animals such as horses, deer, bison, birds and fish. These tools and weapons were also made from a variety of substances such as reindeer antlers.

These people also realized that a spear covered with barbs, harpoon style, would do much more damage than a smooth point. However, even with barbs, animals often were not killed outright and the mortally wounded beast would run sometimes run for miles before falling down and dying. The Cro-Magnon, therefore, created blood grooves along side the bone spearheads so that blood could more efficiently gush from the wound thus speeding the process of dying.

In addition, perhaps 20,000 years ago the first bows and arrows apparently came into widespread use and the arrows appear to have been feathered so as to stabilize their flight. With the creation of the bow the hunter could now remain completely hidden for if he missed with his first shot the animal would not even know he was there (so long as he stayed down wind and out of sight). The hunter could now shoot again and again.

The Cro-magnon were the greatest hunters of their time and unlike those who came before them, they were able to easily kill antelopes, bison, wild horses, reindeer, mammoths, and even lions and bears. They were also good trappers and fisherman and took birds, small animals and fish in abundance. In fact, they were the first true fishermen and constantly harvested the abundant game living in the lakes, rivers and seas. These people utilized nets, a trident shaped spear as well as a baited hook which would then become lodged in the throat of the fish.

They also developed the "trap," a rawhide or thick vine noose which was attached to a bent sapling which was tethered to some object such as a huge rock. The noose would be laid where the animal was expected to walk. Any animal or human which tripped the tether that held the sapling would be snared by the loop which would yank the unfortunate creature into the air. There it would hang only to die exposed to the elements or to be later beaten to death.

The Cro-Magnon people likely utilized iron and engaged in metal tool making. Unfortunately such devices would not have withstood the ravages of time and have disappeared from the fossil record. However, the flint points they utilized were in fact superior to iron or steel in their cutting power and can penetrate more deeply when thrown at some unfortunate animal or human. These people also applied some type of solvent to these blades to make them more durable as they tend to be somewhat brittle and can be broken.

Diversity in tool making is the hall mark of the Cro-Magnon. Thirty five thousand years ago, a typical tool kit consisted of well over 125 items, e.g. knives for cutting, whittling, stone saws, chisels, perforators for making holes, needles, scrapers for bone others for skin, pounding slabs, etc.. Many these tools were attached to wood, bone and antler handles, and/or were made of these items including ivory. Indeed ivory can also be steamed and bent so that specific shapes can be molded.

In contrast, the Neanderthal and those who came before them, simply knocked two stones together so as to sharpen a rock, or they chipped away flakes from rocks and used these as cutting tools and weapons. The typical Neanderthal tool kit consisted from between 5 to 60 different items, such as horizontal stone scrapers and blunted and doubled edged rock knives.


By the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic hunting had become the center of religious and artistic life for the men. Nevertheless, 60-80% of the Cro-Magnon diet consisted of fruits, nuts, grains, honey, roots and vegetables (Clark, 1952; Prideaux, 1973), which were gathered by females (Joseph, 2000b). Among the hunting and gathering societies in existence during the last few centuries, women have been and are the gatherers and main providers of food whereas spoils from the hunt account for only about 35% of the diet (Dahlberg, 1981; Lee & DeVore, 1968; Martin & Voorhies, 1975; Murdock & Provost, 1973; Zilman, 1981).

Gathering was also a spiritual affair which unlike hunting and the taking of life, celebrated the nurturance and giving of life and life's abundance. These Paleolithic women likely gathered in groups of 7 or more adults. The Cro-Magnon woman did not just gatherer the produce from the Garden of Eden, but she experimented with horticulture, herbology, and the fertility of the Earth.

Man the hunter, woman the gatherer and giver of life, has characterized the psychic and spiritual dichotomy of the human condition since well before the Paleolithic. Yet, with the arrival of the Cro-Magnon, woman became a tool-making, gathering goddess and mistress of the hearth and the hunt. And woman, the first god, was worshipped by woman and man.


Whereas hunting was the center of religious life for men, food gathering and herbology served the same purpose for women. Such gathering groups must have commonly been loud, noisy and very gay affairs filled with the talk and singing of the women and the sounds of games and yells of the children. Some women were pregnant or probably carried and nursed infants who might be passed from mother to sister, to aunt, and back again. Children and young adolescents would frolic about and play. The women could talk, sing, celebrate life's abundance, and share and practice their spiritual faith and worship together as they harvested nature's bounty.

Woman the gatherer worshipped the Great Mother, the Great Goddess, the Lord of Creation, Mother Earth, the Mother of All. And she carried with her ivory and stone engravings of the Great Mother, and amulets and rings, and mother goddess statues that could be stuck into the ground.

And while the men performed their rituals in the deep recesses of caverns and caves, woman worshipped the Great Mother by dawn's early light, and the light of the harvest moon. And whereas the men practiced rituals involving death and the spiritual hereafter, women practiced rituals of fertility that celebrated life's abundance. Dancing, singing, fertility rites, and sex orgies became hallmarks of their rituals.


Whereas the Cro-Magnon hunter invented his own religion and a stockpile of technologically advanced weapons that made him the greatest hunter of all time, woman the gatherer discovered her own life giving spirituality, and created her own arsenal of weapons which made her the greatest artisan of all time. Her creations included statutes of female gods, earrings, necklaces, bracelets, pendants, and beads, and complex tools for domestic ease including choppers, scrapers, cleavers with a straight cutting edge on one side (Day, 1996; Rightmire, 1990). That these tools were fashioned by a female hand can be deduced by their domestic use (Joseph, 2000a,b). Among hunting and gathering groups it is females and not the males who make and use tools (Niethhammer, 1977), the only exception being hunting implements and weapons of war which females are not allowed to touch (Tabet, 1982).

The responsibilities of the Cro-Magnon woman included the preparation of the food she gathered and any meat which the men brought home from their hunting sojourns. In addition to food preparation, clothes were sewn and fashioned out of hides (Clark, 1952, 1967; Prideaux, 1973), and these too are tasks associated with women (Gusinde, 1961; Lee, 1974; Neithhammer, 1977), including, presumably, the Cro-Magnon females of the Upper Paleolithic.

Thus the duties of the Upper Paleolithic female were much more multi-faceted and complex than her predecessors, and included cleaning hides via a scraper, drying and curing the skin over the smoke of a fire, and then using a knife or cutter to make the general desired shape. The Upper Paleolithic female was also employing a punch to make holes in these hides, through which leather straps or a vine could be passed so as to create a garment that could keep out the cold (Clark, 1952, 1967; Prideaux, 1973). They were also weaving and using a needle to sew garments together; "domestic" tasks which are almost exclusively associated with "women's" work (Murdock & Provost, 1973; Neithhammer, 1977; Joseph 1999).

The women were exceedingly skilled artisans whose ablities easily excel those of any modern woman today. And they were creating beautiful, colorful, intricately designed, embroidered, and tailored clothes over 30,000 years ago.

The Cro-Magnon women dressed their men and their children like woodland gods, fed them the food of the gods, picked fresh daily from the Paleolithic garden of Eden. And they worshipped woman as the life creating and life giving goddess, the Great Mother of All who gave life to the earth and woman and man.


These people and their descendants became so proficient at art, crafts, horticulture and hunting that they were able to settle year round in villages. In fact, the Cro-Magnon built long houses of wood and stone that were large enough to easily provide shelter for up to 20-25 adults and children at a time. These long houses were about 50 feet wide and 20 or more feet long. These were not merely makeshift accommodations that could be moved at whim. The houses were set on stone foundations that were sunk 2-3 feet into the ground. These houses also contained bedrooms, common living areas (or living rooms), kilns and fireplaces, as well as stone storage vaults where meat and other perishables could be easily stored for weeks at a time.

By contrast, the Neanderthals were still living in cold, damp caves.

"Long houses" are associated with matriarchal, female dominated societies. In these societies daughters and the daughters of daughters never leave home but live with their mothers and grandmothers, thus forming extended familes living under one roof, the long house. Men marry into these households, and together these households would make up a village or small town which would be governed by the matriarchs. Therefore it can be deduced that Cro-Magnon society was also matriarchal as is also indicated by the widespread religious cult of the goddess.

By 15,000 years ago, they were already living in great cities of thousands of people; cities surrounded by woodland and small farms and fields of wild wheat. Stone sickles and grinding stones were in use 20,000 years ago which allowed for the harvesting and milling of wild and domestic grains. Moreover, they probably made beer from the grain and may well have discovered that wine could be produced from the fermented grape. Hence, the Cro-Magnon people invented civilization over 20,000 years ago; which is exactly what the oldest written records and the ancient Sumerian, Egyptian and Mayan Kings lists patiently explain.

However, not all Cro-Magnon were city dwellers. Many made their homes out of animal skins that were sewn together thus forming tents. The tents were held together by poles and were anchored to the ground by wooden posts.

The massive efficiency by which these people were able to hunt, gather, forage, as well as plant and harvest their own grains not only resulted in a very well rounded and healthy diet but increased leisure time. Indeed, these people may well have arrived at a 3 day work week 35,000 years ago; leisure time that could be devoted to the development of other pursuits and interests, such as the acquisition of material goods and wealth and the seeking of knowledge and spiritual wisdom; wisdom and knowledge not just of this world, but of the next one.

And then the CroMagnon civilization came to an end.


The indians of North American, which some scientists refer to as the Clovis people, create huge serpent mounds in the shape of a giant snake attacking the Earth.

A close examination of these giant mounds indicates these serpents also take the shape of a comet with a huge tail.

There is evidence which suggest the Earth was subjected to a world-wide calamity 12,000 years ago which wiped out millions of animals and flash froze mammoths with food in their mouths and which caused incredible floods with sea levels rising up to 400 feet.

Ancient cultures from around the world speak of this great flood which wiped out ancient civilizations and the Golden Age.

Only a hail of meteors striking the planet could have caused these catastrophes, the flooding and an instant ice age that last over 1000 years, an age of ice known today as a period of known as the Younger Dryas. Several must have struck or exploded over North America, melting the Laurentide glaciers of Canada and a natural ice dam which had dammed up a giant inland sea and a thousand mile wide lake of meltwater.

When the glaciers and this natural ice dam melted and broke apart the huge inland sea rushed into the North Atlantic shutting down the ocean's natural heating/cooling cycle and triggering an instant ice age and an avalanch of water causing sea levels to rise as much as 400 feet, destroying the cities, the civilizations of woman and man and wiping out millions of animals.

The Golden Age, and the Age of the CroMagnon people had come to a catastrophic end.

Copyright: 1996, 2000, 2010, 2018 - Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D.